Conventional Battery Power

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(Image retrieved from: www.norbsa02.freeuk.com/goffybatteries.htm)

History of conventional batteries

  • Batteries may have first been used in Bahgdad in 200BCE [Akel3]

  • 1748 - Benjamin Franklin first coined the term "battery" to describe an array of charged glass plates. [GRot3]
  • 1780 to 1786 - Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the electrical basis of nerve impulses and provided the cornerstone of research for later inventors like Volta.[GRot3]
  • 1800 - Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method of generating electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard soaked in brine between the metals, the voltic pile produced electrical current. The metallic conducting arc was used to carry the electricity over a greater distance. Alessandro Volta's voltaic pile was the first "wet cell battery" that produced a reliable, steady current of electricity.[GRot3]
  • 1836 - Englishman, John F. Daniel invented the Daniel Cell that used two electrolytes: copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. The Daniel Cell was somewhat safer and less corrosive then the Volta cell.[GRot3]
  • 1839 - William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell, which produced electrical by combining hydrogen and oxygen.[GRot3]
  • 1839 to 1842 - Inventors created improvements to batteries that used liquid electrodes to produce electricity. Bunsen (1842) and Grove (1839) invented the most successful.[GRot3]
  • In 1997 the Prius came out in Japan and it runs on both gasoline and a conventional battery. As you know this car has created the hybrid class and it has shown that the conventional battery is a reliable source of energy. [BJac3]
  • The earliest known artifacts that may have been batteries are the Baghdad Batteries, from some time between 250 BCE and 640 CE. [BJac3]
  • There is evidence that primitive batteries were used in Iraq and Egypt as early as 200 B.C. for electroplating and precious metal gilding. [JBur3] http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html
  • In the 1860s, Georges Leclanche of France developed a carbon-zinc wet cell; nonrechargeable, it was rugged, manufactured easily, and had a reasonable shelf life. Also in the 1860s, Raymond Gaston Plant invented the lead-acid battery. It had a short shelf life, and about 1881 Émile Alphonse Faure developed batteries using a mixture of lead oxides for the positive plate electrolyte with faster reactions and higher efficiency. [JBur3] http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html
  • In the 1950s the improved alkaline-manganese battery was developed. In 1954 the first solar battery or solar cell was introduced, and in 1956 the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell was introduced. The 1960s saw the invention of the gel-type electrolyte lead-acid battery. Lithium-ion batteries, wafer thin and powering portable computers, cell phones, and space probes were introduced in the 1990s. [JBur3] http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html
  • The German physicist Otto von Guericke experimented with generating electricity in 1650. The English physicist Stephen Gray discovered electrical conductivity in 1729. The American statesman and inventor Benjamin Franklin studied the properties of electricity by conducting his famous experiment of flying a kite with a key attached during electrical storms in 1752. [JBur3] http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/battery.htm
  • In 1800 , William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle used a battery to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. Sir Humphry Davy researched this chemical effect at the same time. Davy researched the decomposition of substances (called electrolysis ). In 1813 , he constructed a 2,000-plate paired battery in the basement of Britain's Royal Society, covering 889 ft² (83 m²). Through this experiment, Davy deduced that electrolysis was the action in the voltaic pile that produced electricity. In 1820, the British researcher John Frederic Daniell improved the voltaic cell. The Daniell cell consisted of copper and zinc plates and copper and zinc sulphates . It was used to operate telegraphs and doorbells. [JBur3] http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/battery.htm
  • Between 1832 and 1834 , Michael Faraday conducted experiments with a ferrite ring , a galvanometer, and a connected battery. When the battery was connected or disconnected, the galvanometer deflected. Faraday also developed the principle of ionic mobility in chemical reactions of batteries. In 1839 , William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell, which produced electrical energy by combining hydrogen and oxygen. Grove developed another form the electric cell using zinc and platinum electrodes. These electrodes were exposed to two acids separated by a diaphragm. [JBur3] http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/battery.htm
  • The next step in the evolution of electrical energy storage was the invention of the lead acid storage battery in 1859 by the French physicist Gaston Plante. This chemical battery used a liquid electrolyte, and was not easy to move. Based on the pioneering work done between 1867 and 1877 by Georges Leclanche in France, the situation showed promise of changing to a more portable battery. Around 1881, Emile Alphonse Faure , with his colleagues, developed batteries using a mixture of lead oxides for the positive plate electrolyte. These had faster reactions and higher efficiency. [JBur3] http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/battery.htm
  • Dr. Carl Gassner Jr. produced the first "dry" cell in 1886 with zinc as the container for the other elements as well as for the negative electrode. The electrolyte was absorbed in a porous material and the cell was sealed across the top. During 1886 Dr. Gassner obtained patents throughout Europe. A U.S. patent no. 373,064 was issued on November 15, 1887. In the dry cell battery, the electrolyte is a damp paste so that there is no liquid to leak out, and thus quite portable. It became the prototype for the dry battery industry. (JBur3) http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/battery.htm



Reliability of conventional batteries:

Rechargeable batteries self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries, especially nickel-based batteries; a freshly charged NiCd loses 10% of its charge in the first 24 hours, and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month.[56] However, modern lithium designs have reduced the self-discharge rate to a relatively low level (but still poorer than for primary batteries).[56] Most nickel-based batteries are partially discharged when purchased, and must be charged before first use. [MMul3]

Although rechargeable batteries have their energy content restored by charging, some deterioration occurs on each charge/discharge cycle. Low-capacity nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries (1700-2000 mA·h) can be charged for about 1000 cycles, whereas high capacity NiMH batteries (above 2500 mA·h) can be charged for about 500 cycles.[58] Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries tend to be rated for 1,000 cycles before their internal resistance increases beyond usable values. Normally a fast charge, rather than a slow overnight charge, will result in a shorter battery lifespan. [MMul3]

Degradation usually occurs because electrolyte migrates away from the electrodes or because active material falls off the electrodes. NiCd batteries suffer the drawback that they should be fully discharged before recharge. Without full discharge, crystals may build up on the electrodes, thus decreasing the active surface area and increasing internal resistance. This decreases battery capacity and causes the "memory effect". These electrode crystals can also penetrate the electrolyte separator, thereby causing shorts. NiMH, although similar in chemistry, does not suffer from memory effect to quite this extent.[60] When a battery reaches the end of its lifetime, it will not suddenly lose all of its capacity; rather, its capacity will gradually decrease. [MMul3]

Automotive lead-acid rechargeable batteries have a much harder life.[62] Because of vibration, shock, heat, cold, and sulfation of their lead plates, few automotive batteries last beyond six years of regular use.[63] Automotive starting batteries have many thin plates to provide as much current as possible in a reasonably small package. In general, the thicker the plates, the longer the life of the battery.[62] Typically they are only drained a small amount before recharge. Care should be taken to avoid deep discharging a starting battery, since each charge and discharge cycle causes active material to be shed from the plates. [MMul3]

Car batteries can be recharged while they are in use. The cars alternater charges the battery will the car is running so the batteries can last for a rather long time. [BJac3]

"Deep-cycle" lead-acid batteries such as those used in electric golf carts have much thicker plates to aid their longevity.[64] The main benefit of the lead-acid battery is its low cost; the main drawbacks are its large size and weight for a given capacity and voltage.[62] Lead-acid batteries should never be discharged to below 20% of their full capacity,[65] because internal resistance will cause heat and damage when they are recharged. Deep-cycle lead-acid systems often use a low-charge warning light or a low-charge power cut-off switch to prevent the type of damage that will shorten the battery's life. [MMul3]

Sulfation occurs when a battery is not fully charged, and the longer it remains in a discharged state the harder it is to overcome the sulfation. This may be overcome with slow, low-current (trickle) charging. Sulfation is due to formation of large, non-conductive lead sulfate crystals on the plates; lead sulfate formation is part of each cycle, but in the discharged condition the crystals become large and block passage of current through the electrolyte. [MMul3]

A major hurdle in the widespread production of automobiles powered by batteries instead of carbon based fuel has been the battery itself. The potency and number of miles which a car will go on a single battery charge has made battery-powered cars manufactured in the early 21st century largely impractical for highway driving in the United States, where most battery powered cars are recharged at the owner's homes. However, as battery charging stations become more common, this limitation should be largely reduced. [BJac3]

.Researchers at the University of Miami and at the Universities of Tokyo and Tohoku, Japan, have been able to prove the existence of a “spin battery,” a battery that is "charged" by applying a large magnetic field to nano-magnets in a device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The new technology is a step towards the creation of computer hard drives with no moving parts, which would be much faster, less expensive and use less energy than current ones. In the future, the new battery could be developed to power cars. [BJac3]

The Nickel-Hydrogen battery is currently the most popular space battery. It can be considered a hybrid between the nickel-cadmium battery and the fuel cell. The cadmium electrode was replaced with a hydrogen gas electrode. This battery is visually much different from the Nickel-Cadmium battery, because the cell is a pressure vessel, which must contain over one thousand pounds per square inch (psi) of hydrogen gas. It is significantly lighter than nickel-cadmium, but is more difficult to package, much like a crate of eggs. It is the longest-lived space battery yet built, with 10 to 20 year lifetimes being common. This battery is too expensive for commercial applications, and few terrestrial examples have been built. [JBur3]

http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery1.htmMany EVs have been customized with special features such as resealable tires, programmable charging systems, and regenerative breaking. In addition, they have proven to be low maintenance and fairly cost efficient vehicles, with batteries that can last up to four years or 40,000 miles (depending upon the type of batteries being used). Most car companies lease their EVs however, so the consumer never has to cover the cost of replacing the battery pack.[GRot3]


Batteries are reliable, but not perfect. they can have shorts, or have leaks. But other than that Batteries work rain or shine. [Akel3]

How are conventional batteries used?:

Batteries may be used once and discarded, or recharged for years as in standby power applications. Miniature cells are used to power devices such as hearing aids and wristwatches; larger batteries provide standby power for telephone exchanges or computer data centers. [MMul3]

Batteries can be used for anything from flashlights to car batteries. Sometimes they offer backup power to objects like clocks. If the power goes these objects will still operate. [BJac3]

Acid lead batteries are very good for cars because the provide a lot of "crank power" that is used to start the car. They are very cost effective and they are an appropriate size for the power that they put out. [BJac3]

One of the first space batteries was the Silver-Zinc battery, which dominated the industry in the 60's. This is a premium system with very high specific power and energy, but is quite expensive due to the use of silver. They are still used in selected applications, such as launch vehicles (rockets) and torpedoes. Mars Pathfinder also used a Silver-Zinc battery, but it was designed to be rechargeable. They have a relatively short cycle life, and are not used for multi-year missions. This type of battery is used commonly in the commercial market as hearing aid batteries. [JBur3] http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery1.htm

Batteries come in several styles; the most familiar are single-use alkaline batteries. NASA spacecraft usually use rechargeable nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydride batteries like those found in laptop computers or cellular phones. Engineers think of batteries as a place to store electricity in a chemical form. [JBur3] http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery1.htm

Nickel cadmium is the most commonly used battery for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions. A spacecraft battery consists of series-connected cells, the number of which depends upon bus voltage requirements and output voltage of the individual cells. [JBur3]
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery1.htm

The storage battery's greatest use has been in the automobile where it was used to start the internal-combustion engine. Improvements in battery technology have resulted in vehicles—some in commercial use—in which the battery system supplies power to electric drive motors instead. [JBur3]
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html

Batteries consisting of carbon-zinc dry cells connected in various ways (as well as batteries consisting of other types of dry cells) are used to power such devices as flashlights, lanterns, and pocket-sized radios and CD players. [JBur3]http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html

Alkaline dry cells are an efficient battery type that is both economical and reliable. In alkaline batteries, the hydrous alkaline solution is used as an electrolyte; the dry cell lasts much longer as the zinc anode corrodes less rapidly under basic conditions than under acidic conditions. [JBur3] http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0806492.html

Conventional Batteries can be used to power just about anything, and the chemical energy they withhold is easily turned into other forms of energy, such as visible light in a gameboy, or kinetic energy in a car. [Akel3]

Batteries are also commonly used to supplement other forms of power, such as a battery in a car helps to start the car and power the radio and lights. [Akel3]


Benefits of using conventional batteries:

They are easily made and have been produced for years so it's not like conventional batteries are a new technology that people don't know how to produce. [MMul3]

The benefits of using batteries are that in transportation they offer better mileage and the lower emissions that are ruining our planet. One example of this is the Toyota Prius. The Prius meets California's super ultra low emissions vehicle (SULEV) standard. [BJac3]

The prius engine only runs at an efficient speed and load - In order to reduce emissions, the Prius can accelerate to a speed of about 15 mph (24 kph) before switching on the gasoline engine. The engine only starts once the vehicle has passed a certain speed. And once the engine starts, it operates in a narrow speed band. This improves its gas mileage and cuts down on cost. It also reduces emissions. one day the battery could completely replace oil and gas once the technology improves and batteries get more powerful for such tasks as cars and transportation. [BJac3]

Lithium Iron Phosphate, LiFePO4 Batteries are a safer thermally stable type of rechargeable Lithium-ion battery that is especially suited for electric vehicles because of their high energy density, high discharge rate, long life cycle and inherent safety characteristics. [BJac3]

Battery-powered yard tools reduce noise pollution as well as air pollution. Imagine if everyone in your neighborhood used practically whisper-quiet battery-operated lawn mowers, weed eaters, and other equipment. [JBur3] http://www.bhg.com/gardening/yard/tools/the-benefits-of-battery-powered-equipment/

Battery-powered versions of your favorite lawn and garden tools are becoming available as technology improves battery life. While still relying on electric energy to power the battery, this equipment's overall contribution to air pollution is significantly less than their gas-powered cousins. [JBur3] http://www.bhg.com/gardening/yard/tools/the-benefits-of-battery-powered-equipment/

Cordless, battery-powered hand tools are also easier to use because they're lightweight. Cordless leaf blowers and weed eaters, for example, give you more flexibility in tight spaces or small areas. [JBur3] http://www.bhg.com/gardening/yard/tools/the-benefits-of-battery-powered-equipment/

For safety features, circuit breakers and fusible links are installed to make explosions, fires, and electrocution a highly unlikely experience. In car accidents, EVs are considered to withstand impact a lot better than most gasoline-powered vehicles, as the fluid filled batteries help to absorb most of the impact. However, if the sealed lead-acid batteries should some how rupture and a person comes in contact with the fluid, the acid can cause serious harm unless thoroughly cleansed with water very rapidly. [GRot3]

Electric cars are 100% emission-free, having no polluting byproducts, therefore they are cleaner than hybrid automobiles. They secure their power from batteries, the sun or hydrogen fuel cells. Battery-powered electric cars, besides being cleaner, are more fuel-efficient, get better mileage and have less moving parts to wear out. Cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells are emission-free, lightweight, compact, three times as efficient as gas engines, have excellent ranges, easy refueling and are totally safe. Therefore the primary advantages of electric cars over hybrid cars are their lower emissions and higher efficiency. [GRot3]

Pollution is minimized when using batteries, because they can be recharged and the materials to make them can be continuously re-used. [Akel3]

Batteries can be used no matter what. conditions do not matter, like they might for a solar powered car. [Akel3]


Disadvantages of using conventional batteries:

A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery, such as attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery,[69] or short circuiting a battery.[70] With car batteries, explosions are most likely to occur when a short circuit generates very large currents. In addition, car batteries liberate hydrogen when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte). Normally the amount of overcharging is very small, as is the amount of explosive gas developed, and the gas dissipates quickly. However, when "jumping" a car battery, the high current can cause the rapid release of large volumes of hydrogen, which can be ignited by a nearby spark (for example, when removing the jumper cables). [MMul3]

When a battery is recharged at an excessive rate, an explosive gas mixture of hydrogen and oxygen may be produced faster than it can escape from within the walls of the battery, leading to pressure build-up and the possibility of the battery case bursting. In extreme cases, the battery acid may spray violently from the casing of the battery and cause injury. Overcharging—that is, attempting to charge a battery beyond its electrical capacity—can also lead to a battery explosion, leakage, or irreversible damage to the battery. It may also cause damage to the charger or device in which the overcharged battery is later used. Additionally, disposing of a battery in fire may cause an explosion as steam builds up within the sealed case of the battery. [MMul3]

Many battery chemicals are corrosive or poisonous or both. If leakage occurs, either spontaneously or through accident, the chemicals released may be dangerous. For example, disposable batteries often use a zinc "can" as both a reactant and as the container to hold the other reagents. If this kind of battery is run all the way down, or if it is recharged after running down too far, the reagents can emerge through the cardboard and plastic that form the remainder of the container. The active chemicals can then damage the equipment that they were inserted into. [MMul3]

Common battery faults include:
  • Shorted cell due to failure of the separator between the positive and negative plates
  • Shorted cell or cells due to build up of shed plate material building up below the plates of the cell
  • Broken internal connections due to corrosion
  • Broken plates due to vibration and corrosion
  • Low electrolyte
  • Cracked or broken case
  • Broken terminals
  • Sulfation after prolonged disuse in a low or zero charged state
  • [MMul3]

Any lead-acid battery system when overcharged will produce hydrogen gas. If the rate of overcharge is small, the vents of each cell allow the dissipation of the gas. However, on severe overcharge or if ventilation is inadequate or the battery is faulty, a flammable concentration of hydrogen may remain in the cell or in the battery enclosure. Any spark can cause a hydrogen and oxygen explosion, which will damage the battery and its surroundings and which will disperse acid into the surroundings. Anyone close to the battery may be severely injured. Sometimes the ends of a battery will be severely swollen, and when accompanied by the case being too hot to touch, this usually indicates a malfunction in the charging system of the car. When severely overcharged, a lead-acid battery gases at a high level and the venting system built into the battery cannot handle the high level of gas, so the pressure builds inside the battery, resulting in the swollen ends. An unregulated alternator can put out a high level of charge, and can quickly ruin a battery. A swollen, hot battery is very dangerous, and should not be handled until it has been given sufficient time to cool and any hydrogen gas present to dissipate. [MMul3]

Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting, by adding resistance. The corrosion is caused by a small crack in the casing, or by leakage past the seal, allowing sulfuric acid vapor to corrode the battery terminals (which are made of lead). To prevent corrosion, during regular battery service the terminals may be cleaned with a wire brush and a solution of baking soda and water and corrosive products washed away with water. When the battery terminals are re-assembled, they are often coated with petroleum jelly (grease is not desired) or a commercially available anti-corrosion product to reduce the rate of corrosion accumulation. The corrosive white powder sometimes found around the battery terminals is usually lead sulfate which is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact. It is also corrosive to the eyes, skin and any metal parts of the automobile with which it may come in contact. [MMul3]

Amidst all of the amazing advances in the last 50 years, battery tech has remained fundamentally unchanged, engineers incrementally squeezing out a few extra drops of power from old tech each year. This says that battery technology isnt growing. [BJac3]

Most batteries give reduced voltage and Ah capacity at low temperatures. [BJac3]

Electrical energy from non-rechargeable (primary) batteries is expensive in relative terms and its use is limited to low power applications such as watches, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. [JBur3] http://www.batteryuniversity.com/parttwo-51.htmYou can only go so far on a charge. The issue here is that it takes time to charge the car. Charging is not a 15-minute process in fact, on many models this can be a 6 to 8 hour process. [Grot3]

Electric cars are expensive to own. If you’ve checked into the price of an electric car, you know they are not “low end”. It’s not so much the price of the car as it is the price of the batteries which they run on. If you’ve purchased batteries you know how the costs can add up quickly, and the batteries used in electric cars are lithium-ion, which are expensive. Also keep in mind that eventually the battery packs will need to be replaced, as they have a life of approximately 3 to 4 years. [Grot3]

The batteries will need to be recharged. A second disadvantage to an electric car is that the batteries will need to be recharged. This will require advanced planning because you’ll have to allow adequate time for the batteries to be fully charged. Now this might not sound like that big of a problem but if you are thinking of purchasing an electric car then you will need to make an honest assessment of how much you will use your vehicle. An extended or unplanned trip could be problematic if you haven’t had time to fully recharge the batteries. [Grot3]


Batteries los 8-20% of the charge as a year goes by in a 20-30 degree celcius environment. [Akel3]

Limits on driving distance. If you drive long distances, an electric car might not suit your needs, so you will need to consider how far you plan on driving your car. Most of the electric cars have limits on how many miles they can go before needing a recharge. Electric car maker ZAP recently announced that their electric car could travel up to 100 miles per single charge, but many people drive more miles than that round trip on a daily commute to work. This is definitely a limitation for those who intend to use the vehicle for getting to and from their place of employment. You certainly would not want to run out of batteries if you got stuck in a rush hour traffic jam. [Grot3]


Lack of power. Another disadvantage to the electric car is the lack of power, specifically quick pickup. If you do a lot of interstate driving there are going to be times when you will need to accelerate quickly to merge into traffic. [Grot3]

We dont yet know if batteries are an everlasting energy source. [Akel3]

Batteries can short out, which could be dangerous and unreliable. [Akel3]


Batteries are not going to be strong enough when it comes to jobs like lifting building supplies to the tops of buildings, or moving other heavy items. [Akel3]

Batteries could be dangerous to children who dont know the proper usage. [Akel3]

Economic costs of using conventional batteries:

The cost of using conventional batteries should be less than the cost of other energy forms because it is an energy form that has been around for the longest besides the use of oil. [MMul3]

The economic cost of using conventional batteries will be more better than lets say oil because oil cant be recharged. It is burnt up as energy while batteries can be used as energy but they can be re-used. A car will burn thousands of gallons of gas a year but one car battery can last up to 6 years. [BJac3]

While the size and weight of an acid lead battery prevents them from being useful in something small, they are a very cost effective battery pack for the power that they provide.[BJac3]

A more expensive type of lead-acid battery called a gel battery (or gel cell) contains a semisolid electrolyte to prevent spillage. More portable rechargeable batteries include several dry-cell types, which are sealed units and are therefore useful in appliances like mobile phones and laptops. [JBur3]

The main cost of Batteries comes from the metal used to make them and the chemical energy from them is costly, however they dont cost as much as energy forms like wind turbines, which are very costly to keep running. [Akel3]

Batteries could be made here in the USA, so we wouldnt have to get gas from other countries, making us a more powerful economy. [Akel3]


Environmental impact of using conventional batteries (Both +/-):

The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution.[71] Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. Some areas now have battery recycling services available to recover some of the materials from used batteries.[72] Batteries may be harmful or fatal if swallowed.[73] Recycling or proper disposal prevents dangerous elements (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium) found in some types of batteries from entering the environment. In the United States, Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually, and about 179,000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country. [MMul3]

In the United States, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996 banned the sale of mercury-containing batteries (except small button cell batteries), enacted uniform labeling requirements for rechargeable batteries, and required that rechargeable batteries be easily removable.[75] California, and New York City prohibit the disposal of rechargeable batteries in solid waste, and along with Maine require recycling of cell phones.[76] The rechargeable battery industry has nationwide recycling programs in the United States and Canada, with dropoff points at local retailers. [MMul3]

UNIROSS, European leader in rechargeable batteries, today announced the results of the world’s first independent study* that compares the environmental impact of disposable batteries with rechargeable batteries. This study shows that, for a same quantity of energy produced, rechargeable batteries have up to 32 times less impact on the environment than disposable batteries. [MMul3]

According to the U.S. government, lithium ion batteries aren't an environmental hazard. "Lithium Ion batteries are classified by the federal government as non-hazardous waste and are safe for disposal in the normal municipal waste stream." Which means lithium batteries would be a good source to use for an alternative energy source. [MMul3]

The Toyota Prius has changed the way we drive and was the start of the hybrid class of cars. The use of its conventional battery has started lowered emissons and polution in the United States. [BJac3]

Hybrid cars, which run on a combination of fuel and electricity, and electric cars, which run entirely on electricity, use batteries to store electricity. Increased usage of hybrids is expected to diminish air pollution and help to reduce reliance on gasoline. [BJac3]

A more serious environmental problem is the disposal of spent battery packs in hybrid and electric cars. Car manufacturers are aware of this issue, and continue to research and develop less toxic battery packs for electric and hybrid cars. Its just a matter of time before this problem is fixed though. [BJac3]

Batteries are considered hazardous because of the metals and/or other toxic or corrosive materials contain within. Batteries are potentially a valuable source of recyclable metal. [BJac3]

Incentives for developing nickel/metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries comes from pressing health and environmental concerns to find replacements for the nickel/cadmium rechargeable batteries. Due to worker's safety requirements, processing of cadmium for batteries in the U.S. is already in the process of being phased out. [JBur3]
http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbattery1.htm

Conventional batteries will help the environmental situation that the world is currently experiencing. Since they are almost completely renewable, and do not emit toxic gases, they are ideal to an eco friendly community. [Akel3]


However, the shells of old batteries can contain harmful chemical liquid, capable of burning straight through metal. [Akel3]

Is there any opposition to the use of conventional batteries? Why? Do you agree or disagree with those views?:

The only opposition to the use of conventional batteries would be people who are worried about the environmental impact and I think these views should be disagreed with. [MMul3]

After research, I could not find any arguements against conventional batteries. they are nearly completely renewable. they can be recharged for extended amounts of time and the materials they are made of are recyclable. The only arguement against them is that most power plants are coal powered, but there are other ways to get power for the powerplants. I disagree with this because these plants are capable of being powered with other means of energy, like flowing water. [Akel3]

A decent amount of people who might be for batteries think that there should be some sort of limitation or protection on them. [Akel3]

"While batteries like lead acid or nickel cadmium are incredibly bad for the environment, the toxicity levels and environmental impact of nickel metal hydride batteries—the type currently used in hybrids—are much lower." [GRot3]

rechargeable batteries consume up to 23 times less non-renewable natural resources (fossil and mineral) than disposable batteries. This result can be explained by the much higher number of disposable batteries that have to be produced to provide the same amount of energy.[GRot3]

Climate change means an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface caused by an increase in the greenhouse gas effect. Rechargeable batteries have up to 28 times less impact on climate warming than disposable batteries. This ratio can mainly be explained by the impact caused when manufacturing disposable batteries and distributing them (transportation in trucks and the related greenhouse gas emissions). [GRot3]

Photochemical oxidation is responsible for peaks of ozone and toxic emissions. Rechargeable batteries have up to 30 times less impact on ozone pollution than disposable batteries. [GRot3]

The air acidification indicator consists of the accumulation of acidifying substances in the atmosphere particles. When it rains, these acidifying substances pollute ecosystems and soil. Rechargeable batteries have up to 9 times less impact on air acidification than disposable batteries. [GRot3]

For a given quantity of available energy, rechargeable batteries have up to 12 times less potential toxic risks for fresh water and sea water sediments than disposable batteries. [GRot3]



Would there be any societal impacts to the use of conventional batteries?

According to a report published by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the increasing popularity of hybrid and electric cars could cause increased demand on the power grid. The study notes that many assessments of hybrid power demands assume that car owners would only charge their cars at night, when power demands are traditionally lower. However, this is not always the case. This might cause strain on the power plants and could affect our everyday life. [BJac3]

Another consideration is that many power plants in the United States are powered by coal, long considered one of the "dirtiest" forms of carbon based fuel. In fact, according to a study produced by the German branch of the World Wildlife Fund, the savings in carbon emissions produced by hybrid and electric cars would be largely cancelled out because of their dependence on recharging from coal-powered plants. This could also be seen as a disadvantage. [BJac3]

Gas stations would no longer carry gas, they would carry recharged battery packs. [Akel3]

Getting a battery recharged would also most likely be less costly, and would speed up time spent getting gas or other forms of energy. people could save money and the air would be cleaner. [Akel3]

If conventional batteries were used more often, it might create more jobs in the states a long with breaking down gigantic oil organizations. [Akel3]