Standard Electrical Power=
Electrical.jpeg
(Image retrieved from: www.sciencedaily.com/articles/t/three-phase_electric_power.htm)

History of standard electrical power:

Reliability of standard electrical power:

Electric power is defined as the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt.
external image 250px-Electricalgrid.jpgexternal image magnify-clip.pngElectrical power is transmitted with overhead lines on pylons like these in Brisbane, Australia.

When electric current flows in a circuit, it can transfer energy to do mechanical orthermodynamic work. Devices convert electrical energy into many useful forms, such as heat(electric heaters), light (light bulbs), motion (electric motors), sound (loudspeaker) or chemical changes. Electricity can be produced mechanically by generation, or chemically, or by direct conversion from light in photovoltaic cells, also it can be stored chemically in batteries. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power] [lgar1]

  • The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) released a list of measures taken to shore up electric grid reliability in the year since the 14 August, 2003 northeast blackout, when a sagging high voltage line in Ohio cascaded into a failure that left 50 million people in eight states and a Canadian province without power. (http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/08/16/power_grid_cybersecurity/print.html) [NShu8]
  • -Adding to what [NShu8] stated- Topping the cyber security portion of NERC's list (ftp://www.nerc.com/pub/sys/all_updl/docs/blackout/Status_Report_081104.pdf), the council recently voted to renew for one year a set of rules, called the Urgent Action Cyber Security Standard 1200, that sets minimum cyber security requirements for utility companies in the US and Canada. This was to reduce the risk and possibility of another black out to occur. [ABro1] (http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/08/16/power_grid_cybersecurity/print.html)
  • The blackout of August 14, 2003 was a sharp reminder of the essential nature of electricity and just how dependent we are on its very existence.These disturbances can interrupt production lines, cause damage to products and equipment, result in lost orders or transactions, corrupt data communication and storage, and cause an overall decrease in productivity in today’s global economy. Estimates put power-quality-related losses at $50 billion to $150 billion annually in the U.S. [ABro1] (http://www.maintenanceworld.com/Articles/maintenancetech/benefits.htm)
  • An electric power system serves the basic function of supplying customers, both large and small, with electrical energy as economically and as reliably as possible. The reliability associated with a power system is a measure of its ability to provide an adequate supply of electrical energy for the period of time intended under the operating conditions encountered. Modern society, because of its pattern of social and working habits, has come to expect the power supply to be continuously available on demand. This availability, however, is not physically possible in reality due to random system failures which are generally outside the control of power system engineers, operators, and planners. (http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=reliablity+of+electrical+power&id=216900#S39) [ELom8]
  • It is important to conjecture at this point what can be done regarding reliability assessment and why it is necessary. Failures of components, plant, and systems occur randomly; the frequency, duration, and impact of failures vary from one year to the next. Generally, all utilities record details of the events as they occur, and produce a set of performance measures, such as system availability, estimated unsupplied energy, number of incidents, and number of hours of interruption. These measures are valuable since they identify weak areas needing reinforcements and modifications, establish chronological trends in reliability performance, establish existing indices which serve as a guide for acceptable values in future reliability assessments, enable previous predictions to be compared with actual operating experience, and monitor the response to system design changes. (http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=reliablity+of+electrical+power&id=216900#S39) [ELom8]
Falling natural gas prices and uncertainty about the future of the electric power industry have posed further obstacles to the development of renewable energy in the 1990s. (http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre1997110700&type=hitlist&num=1) [NShu8]

How is standard electrical power used?:

  • Gross generation is the amount of power produced by an electric power plant (station), measured at the terminals of the plant (that is, prior to the point at which the power leaves the station and is available to the system). Some of the electric power generated at a power plant is used to operate equipment at the plant; plant use (or "in-house use") generally ranges between 1 percent (for hydroelectric units) and 7 percent (for steam-electric units) (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/prim2/chapter3.html) [ELom8]
  • Power-system operations can be divided into three stages: operations planning, real-time control, and after-the-fact accounting. The main goal is to minimize operations cost while maintaining the reliability (security) of power delivery to customers. (http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=reliablity+of+electrical+power&id=216900#S39) [ELom8]
  • Net generation is the power available to the system (gross generation less use at the plant); however, it is greater than that available to consumers due to losses during transmission and distribution (approximately 8 to 9 percent). Note that the measure used for electric utilities is net and for nonutility facilities is gross generation. (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/prim2/chapter3.html) [ELom8]
  • Electrical energy is of little use unless it can be made available at the place where it is to be used http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • To minimize energy losses from heating of conductors and to economize on the material needed for conductors, electricity is usually transmitted at the highest voltages possible. As modern transformers are virtually loss free, the necessary steps upward or downward in voltage are easily accomplished. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • A kwh (per kilowatt hour), the standard measurement of energy production, is the amount of electricty that one 100-watt light bulb consumes in 10 hours. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=history+of+electrical+power)
  • Electric utilities are tied together by transmission lines into large systems called power grids. They are thus able to exchange power so that a utility with a low demand can assist another with a high demand to help prevent a blackout, which involves the partial or total shutdown of a utility. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • A generator is a machine in which mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. [CPar8] (http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=electrical+power&id=284800)
  • Generators can be divided into two groups, alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc). Each group can be subdivided into machines that use permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field (PM machines) and those using field windings. A further subdivision relates to the type of prime mover and the generator speed. Large generators are often driven by steam or hydraulic turbines, by diesel engines, and sometimes by electric motors. Generator speeds vary from several thousand rotations per minute for steam turbines to very low speeds for hydraulic or wind turbines. [CPar8] (http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=electrical+power&id=284800)
  • The electrical power used in operate an electrical device is defined as the potential energy or voltage times the current passing through the device. This could also apply to a whole electrical system, such as the the power used in running your household appliances. This is compared to the mechanical definition of power as the work done over a period of time.(http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electrical_power.htm) [OSus1]
  • In times where power utilities face growing need of energy - forcing operators to stress the power cables to the physical limit - safety and efficiency becomes more and more important. Undoubtedly, knowledge in real time of cable temperature and thermal behavior of the cable installation are key to control safety and efficiency of a power distribution network. (http://www.lios-support.com/LIOS_Energy_DTS_Flyer_A4.pdf) [OSus1]
  • Power plants burn coal, oil or natural gases to boil water which creates steam that turns the blades on a machine called a turbine. Turbines have blades that spin around like a windmill. The blades are connected to one end of a long shaft. The other end of the shaft is connected to a generator. When the turbine blades spin, the generator makes electricity. (Richardson, Adele. Electricity: A Question and Answer Book. United States: Capstone Press, 2006.)[OSus1]
  • A power plant uses a generator to create an electric current. A spinning magnet inside the generator pushes electrons from atom to atom along a coiled wire. As long as the magnet spins, the electrons have a constant force that keeps them moving. ( Richardson, Adele. Electricity: A Question and Answer Book. United States: Capstone Press, 2006.) [OSus1]
  • Power lines are made up of metal wires or cables that conduct electricity from the power plant to a central power box in your home. (Richardson, Adele. Electricity: A Question and Answer Book. United States: Capstone Press, 2006.) [OSus1]
  • In the United States, most homes use electrical power in the form of 120-volt, 60 Hz, single phase, alternating current. However, the voltage is not delivered at a constant 120-volts. With alternating current the voltage rises and falls in a predetermined rhythm. The voltage oscillates from 0 to a peak voltage of 169 volts. Most appliances and electronics used in the United States are designed to be powered by this form of generated electricity.[AAlad8]http://www.naturalhandyman.com/iip/infelectrical/infsurge.html
  • When the balancing force between protons and electrons is upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an electric current. [ABro1] (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm)
  • An electric generator (Long ago, a machine that generated electricity was named "dynamo" today's preferred term is "generator".) is a device for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire or any other electrically conductive material moves across a magnetic field, an electric current occurs in the wire. [ABro1] (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm)
  • The large generators used by the electric utility industry have a stationary conductor. A magnet attached to the end of a rotating shaft is positioned inside a stationary conducting ring that is wrapped with a long, continuous piece of wire. When the magnet rotates, it induces a small electric current in each section of wire as it passes. Each section of wire constitutes a small, separate electric conductor. [ABro1] (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm)
  • All the small currents of individual sections add up to one current of considerable size. This current is what is used for electric power. [ABro1] (http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm)
  • Power is delivered from the generator at about 25,000 volts. It is sent to a transformer, which steps up the voltage to several hundred thousand volts. This is necessary for sending power over long distances. (Cooper, Christopher. Physics Matters!: Electric Current. United States: Grolier Educational,2001.) [OSus1]
  • The eletrical cables have resistance, and heat is generated in them, which is wasted. Having a very high voltage driving a low current can minimize the heat lost. The high tension lines fan out from the plant in all directions to cities and towns in the area it serves. (Cooper, Christopher. Physics Matters!: Electric Current. United States: Grolier Educational,2001.) [OSus1]
  • Electricity used in homes is sent to a substation where tranformers reduce the voltages to about 110 volts in the US and about 240 volts in some other countries. (Cooper, Christopher. Physics Matters!: Electric Current. United States: Grolier Educational,2001.)
[OSus1]
  • Electric motors are usually either based on an alternating current (AC) or a direct current (DC), though some motors can run either way. Electric motors use electricity to power a mechanical function. Although most electric motors still have brushes, there are now brushless motors and stepping motors that run through outside electronic sources. [CPar8] (http://www.industrial101.com/equipment/electric-motors.aspx)
  • Electric motors are based on a very simple principle: magnets either attract or repel each other based on position. The motor will have two magnets; movement results when the magnets are either swinging away from each other or being attracted to each other (in other words, rotation). This turns the motor to cause the desired movement.[CPar8] (http://www.industrial101.com/equipment/electric-motors.aspx)
  • there are many different ways to generate electricity - including coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, nuclear, and solar. (http://www.aboutnuclear.org/view.cgi?fC=Electricity,Benefits_^_Effects)[JPug1]

Benefits of using standard electrical power:

  • An electric car produces almost no pollution. (http://auto.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car1.htm) [NShu8]
  • Electric motors are very efficient, converting over 90% of electrical power supplied into motion, while gasoline engines manage 20% efficiency. On a full life cycle basis including power plants and oil wells, electric vehicles manage about 34% efficiency versus only 14% for gasoline vehicles. (http://truecostblog.com/2009/01/04/electric-vs-gasoline/) [NShu8]
  • Electric cars are more efficient per dollar and yield better air quality. Decreased fuel costs for EVs make them more cost-effective in the long run. [ABro1] (http://cr.middlebury.edu/es/altenergylife/electric_car_page.htm)
  • -This next fact is in terms of electrically powered motor vehicles- Electric power steering is a technology that will define the future. It eliminates the need for a power steering pump, hoses, hydraulic fluids, and a drive belt and pulley on the engine. As a result, electric power steering is energy efficient and environmentally compatible - while offering extras like simplified tuning, packaging flexibility and engine-off steering assist. With superior performance, electric power steering will be the technology that challenges the familiar, 50-year-old concepts of hydraulics. (http://www.sae.org/technical/papers/973041) [ELom8]
  • Furthermore, by using energy from power plants, electric cars may actually conserve energy that would otherwise be wasted, say some analysts. Electric cars will likely by recharged at night, during so-called off-peak hours. During those times, demand for electricity is low and utilities often have an excess of power that goes unused. Advocates say that electric cars will maximize energy efficiency by storing energy into batteries at night when there is an oversupply of power and using that energy during the day, when supplies are more limited. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=standard+electrical+power#i0104270_5) [ELom8]
  • A national renewable electricity standard could ( • Reduce the billions of dollars spent every year importing fuels from other states and countries by
developing local renewable energy resources; • Create thousands of manufacturing jobs and increase global export opportunities; • Reduce natural gas costs and reduce or stabilize electricity costs; and • Purchase the least-expensive renewable energy available, anywhere in the country. ) (http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/hr969_southeast.pdf) [ELom8]
Obviously electric engines have no emissions. They also have less moving parts - less things to have break.[AAlad8]http://www.answerbag.com
  • They have us over a barrel. We need a better choice. But what if we had a replacement for oil that cost less than a dollar for an equivalent gallon of gasoline? What if that replacement produced far less carbon dioxide than gas? And what if it helped us see mountains more clearly and breathe easier? But that product does exist. With advances in battery technology, electric power can serve to replace much of the gas we burn in our cars. (http://www.discovery.org/a/4479) [OSus1]
  • Three steps can be taken to accelerate the day that Washington state drivers have a choice to replace gas with electric power.
    • 1.Use the purchasing power of state and local government fleet purchases to provide a stable, dependable initial market for plug-in hybrid cars
      2.Set up pilot projects to demonstrate how to get the costs down faster, how to recharge cars by integrating wind, solar and tidal power and how to meter and bill for the electricity consumed. Recharging cars at off-peak times can make the power system much more efficient. Tacoma Power is looking for ways to work with others to set up a comprehensive plug-in hybrid car demonstration project
      3.Remove roadblocks and create incentives to get things rolling. Bipartisan public support for greater independence from oil for economic and security reasons is strong. And this month a report from the Governor's Climate Advisory Team said plug-in cars were a key way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
With our clean power system, strong bipartisan political leadership and a history of progressive utility cooperation, electric utilities in this state can be leaders in transforming the future of transportation to provide a choice to oil. (http://www.discovery.org/a/4479) [OSus1]
  • Electricity is cheaper than gas, and can come from renewable resources such as solar and wind power. http://www.whokilledtheelectriccar.com/why [BGun8]
  • By using domestically-generated electricity rather than relying on foreign oil, we can achieve energy independence and will no longer need to engage in costly wars in the Middle East to secure an energy supply. http://www.whokilledtheelectriccar.com/why [BGun8]
  • Electric cars can utilize the existing electric grid rather than require the development of a new, expensive energy infrastructure (as would be the case with hydrogen).http://www.whokilledtheelectriccar.com/why [BGun8]
  • Electric cars are much more reliable and require less maintenance than gas-powered cars. You don't even need to get your quarterly oil change! http://www.whokilledtheelectriccar.com/why [BGun8]
  • Electric cars pollute less than gas-powered cars (especially when renewable energy sources are used to generate the electricity).http://www.whokilledtheelectriccar.com/why [BGun8]
  • If electrical equipment operates correctly and reliably without being damaged or stressed, we would say that the electrical power is of good quality. ([[http://www.cpccorp.com/pq.htm)[JPug1]]]
  • Windmills, once widely used for pumping water, have become viable for electric-power generation because of advances in their design and the development of increasingly efficient generators. Windmill "farms," at which rows of windmills are joined together as the source of electrical energy, serve as a significant, though minor, source of electrical energy in coastal and plains areas. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. This is the primary benefit of
owning an electric vehicle (EV). (http://www.envirothonpa.org/documents/22a.2ElectricityBenefits.pdf)[JPug1]

Disadvantages of using standard electrical power:

higher operating speeds rapidly wear the batteries down -- leading to the need for more frequent recharging. (http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre1993070900&type=hitlist&num=19) [NShu8]
and service interruptions - especially with fatigue. (http://www.lios-support.com/LIOS_Energy_DTS_Flyer_A4.pdf) [OSus1]
  • A unique characteristic of electric power is that it cannot be stored for future use. Electric energy suppliers, therefore, must build and maintain generating and transmission facilities capable of meeting the demand levels for electric power at all times. Tracking disturbances that impact the integrated generating and transmission facilities is an important Federal task along with examining issues associated with insufficient capacity reserves.[AAlad8]http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/page/eia411/eia411.html
  • The heat generated by an electric-power plant that is not ultimately converted into electrical energy is called waste heat. The environmental impact of this waste is potentially catastrophic[AAlad8]http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power
  • Associated with nuclear plants, in addition to the problem of waste heat, are difficulties attending the disposal and confinement of reaction products that remain dangerously radioactive for many thousands of years and the adjustment of such plants to variable demands for power.[AAlad8]http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power
  • Bush established an energy commission headed by Vice President Richard Cheney to investigate the shortcomings of national energy policy and propose a set of legislative solutions. The commission, composed of about a dozen cabinet members and other high-level officials, released a report in May 2001 outlining its findings. report framed its proposals with a sense of urgency, declaring that "America in the year 2001 faces the most serious energy shortage since the oil embargoes of the 1970s." Recent energy crises, the commission said, derived from a "fundamental imbalance between supply and demand" in the energy market. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • The report attributed the alleged supply-demand gap to a failure to make production a priority. "Not a single major oil refinery has been built in the U.S. in nearly a generation, causing the kind of bottlenecks that lead to sudden spikes in the price of gasoline," said the report. Similar failures, it claims, have hindered modernization of the nation's energy infrastructure, from pipelines to transmission grids. The report recommended the construction of 1,300 to 1,900 new power plants over the next 20 years. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • As the world continues to urbanize, demand for electricity continues to outpace GDP growth. Generation is more challenging than ever as producers balance CO2, SO2 and carbon emissions controls with producing enough electricity to meet demand and remain profitable. www.platts.com/CommodityHome.aspx?Commodity=ElectricPower [BGun8]
  • To create a new energy economy using much more solar and wind power, the Obama administration needs to build thousands of miles of new transmission lines. Despite the promise that these are needed to get more green energy from solar and wind generators, the proposal faces a host of obstacles. Chris Miller, president of the Piedmont Environmental Council and an advocate of renewable energy, points out that new transmission lines may not be dedicated just to "green" electrons. "There is a real potential that what you are expanding is the capacity to move coal-fired electrons," says Miller, "and that the cheapest power supplies, which are the dirtiest plants, will have access to markets they didn't use to." http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103537250 [BGun8]
  • For a power line to cross 10 states, each of those states must approve that siting. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103537250 [BGun8]
  • The Nature Conservancy recently stated that over 50 million MORE acres of American wilderness - most of which is effectively sequestering carbon - would need to be permanently destroyed to support a remote, centralized, antiquated Big Energy profit model. Hundreds of billions of gallons of scarce SW water will be wasted each year for solar thermal at this scale. HUGE amounts of super-GHG SF6 will be emitted from Big Transmission. Tens of thousands of families would be forced from their land
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103537250 [BGun8]
  • On the other hand, if the electrical equipment malfunctions, is unreliable, or is damaged during normal usage, we would suspect that the power quality is poor. (http://www.cpccorp.com/pq.htm) [JPug1]
  • We have found that the majority of power quality problems are related to issues within a facility as opposed to the utility. (http://www.cpccorp.com/pq.htm) [JPug1]
  • The heat generated by an electric-power plant that is not ultimately converted into electrical energy is called waste heat. The environmental impact of this waste is potentially catastrophic, especially when, as is often the case, the heat is absorbed by streams or other bodies of water. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • Associated with nuclear plants, in addition to the problem of waste heat, are difficulties attending the disposal and confinement of reaction products that remain dangerously radioactive for many thousands of years and the adjustment of such plants to variable demands for power. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]
  • Partly because of those regulations, nuclear plants are proving to be uneconomical. Several are being shut down and replaced by conventionally fueled plants. http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power [BGun8]



Economic costs of using standard electrical power:
  • Since ICOF last covered electric cars in December 2004, U.S. auto companies have decided to ease their financial troubles by producing more hybrid electric cars, and President Obama (D) has advocated giving tax credits to consumers who purchase electric and fuel-efficient cars. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=standard+electrical+power#i0104270_5) [ELom8]
  • The average retail price of electricity for July 2009 was 10.42 cents per kilowatthour (kWh), 1.8 percent higher than June 2009 when the average retail price of electricity was 10.24 cents per kWh, but 2.9 percent lower than July 2008, when the price was 10.73 cents per kWh. Retail sales between July 2008 and July 2009 decreased 6.5 percent. The average price of residential electricity for July 2009 decreased 0.18 cents per kWh to 11.96 cents per kWh from July 2008 and was up from 11.91 cents per kWh in June 2009. At 11.96 cents per kWh, the average residential price of electricity decreased by 1.5 percent from July 2008. (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/epm_sum.html) [ELom8]
  • Another advantage to buying an electric car in the US is that there are numerous financial incentives offered when buying an electric car. These incentives include cash rebates, tax credits, free re-charging and even free parking in some states. (http://www.irolisautos.com/blog/75/) [ELom8]
  • Cost is actually not a major obstacle to building transmission. In fact, a number of private companies are lined up and ready to invest in new transmission, but many are unable to proceed because the policies that govern how we plan, pay for, and permit our electric grid are obsolete. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=103537250 [BGun8]
  • They are expensive(Electrically Powered Vehicles): Batteries that power these cars are a costly affair. Consider this: The promising and long-lasting lithium-ion batteries cost about US$10,000 each, which for the most part make these cars expensive. And if the batteries last only about 4 years, they could add to the maintenance costs. (http://www.articlesbase.com/cars-articles/top-7-disadvantages-of-electric-cars-577453.html) [ELom8]
  • An analysis by the FERC estimates that competition in the electric utility industry will save consumers up to $5.4 billion annually when deregulation is fully implemented nationwide. According to Citizens for a Sound Economy, a free-market policy group, savings could be much higher, at $40 billion each year for businesses and individuals combined. Since industry relies heavily on electricity to produce goods, even a slight decline in prices could increase U.S. productivity. Schaefer says that deregulation could generate an additional $200 billion in economic growth annually and result in "over one million new jobs, increased productivity, higher wages, and a big boost to the competitiveness of American-manufactured goods." [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=history+of+electrical+power)
  • Residential consumers nationwide pay an average 75% more for electricity than do industrial users, and some believe that that disparity will widen further under a deregulated market. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=history+of+electrical+power)
  • The electric company uses the power used over a period of time to calculate the energy used and thus your electric bill.(http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/electrical_power.htm) [OSus1]
  • The popularity of coal is largely due to its low cost. (http://www.powerscorecard.org/tech_detail.cfm?resource_id=2) [NShu8]
  • The next four decades after 1935, state and federal regulation of utilities was considered largely successful. As regulated monopolies, utilities generally provided a reliable and affordable supply of power that kept up with the nation's booming demand for electricity. After peaking at an average price of 36 cents per kilowatt hour (kwh) in 1932, the inflation-adjusted price of electricity in the U.S. declined overall until the energy crisis of the 1970s. (A kwh, the standard measurement of energy production, is the amount of electricity that one 100-watt light bulb consumes in 10 hours.). (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • This relatively smooth system was jolted in 1973, however, when Arab nations in the Middle East imposed an embargo on sales of oil to the U.S. to protest the U.S.'s support of Israel in a regional conflict. Oil prices skyrocketed. Since oil was a main fuel used to generate electricity, consumers' electric bills rose as well. Although prices eventually stabilized by the early 1980s, the energy crisis of the 1970s would not soon be forgotten. Avoiding repetition of that crisis became a primary concern for policy makers. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • Boosting domestic supply would ensure the country's independence from foreign suppliers, some analysts say, since the demand for energy in the U.S. is likely to continue rising. Too much reliance on foreign energy sources constitutes a significant threat to national security, especially during wartime, they argue. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]

  • As of this writing the average price for residential power is 10.6 cents per kilowatthour (report released on Aug 11, 2006). http://dinogy.com/entry/18/what-average-cost-of-electricity-in-us [BGun8]
  • The nation's fleet of over 100 coal plants is responsible for 57 percent of the electricity generated in the U.S., more than any other single electricity fuel source.

http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+powe [BGun8]

Environmental impact of using standard electrical power (Both +/-):
    • The movement toward deregulation (removal of government regulatory controls) has sparked debate over the potential impact that competition in the electric power industry could have on the environment. Some environmentalists contend that deregulation could undermine the decades-long effort to encourage energy conservation. Since utilities in a deregulated market will make higher profits by selling ever greater quantities of energy, they may encourage consumers to use more energy than necessary. Some analysts fear that the weakening of energy-conservation efforts could result in an increased reliance on foreign energy supplies and a faster depletion of the world's limited fossil-fuel resources. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=history+of+electrical+power)
    • Not all environmental groups oppose deregulation. Advocates of deregulation disagree with claims that competition would waste energy resources. Faced with competition, utilities would likely redouble their internal conservation efforts since any energy that is wasted is also money that is lost, they say. Unlike the current monopoly system used to distribute electricity, they contend, a free-market system would ensure that power is allocated as efficiently as possible among competing buyers. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=history+of+electrical+power)
    • Although car makers have researched the viability of electric cars for decades, it is only in recent years that environmentalists and lawmakers concerned over automobile pollution have put increased pressure on the industry to develop practical and affordable electric cars as quickly as possible. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=electrical+power)
    • Electric cars are the only practical and currently achievable candidate for mass-produced zero-emission vehicles (or vehicles that do not emit any fumes or pollutants into the air when they are driven). [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=electrical+power)
    • Those who support mandates for electric cars, including most environmentalists, energy conservationists and some power companies, say that the nation's dependence on oil, from which gasoline is derived, has many drawbacks. Gas-powered cars spew tons of toxic pollutants into the air each day, creating respiratory and other health problems for thousands of people. [CPar8] (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=electrical+power)
    • In the last decades, the model of Brazilian development was characterized by the economic growth
through a fast industrialization. One of the main government strategies, in that period, consisted of the
supply of necessary infrastructure to the industrial activity, mainly in the transport sections,
telecommunication and energy. The transmission systems had a fundamental part in that process, as
elements distributors of electricity for the attending to the needs of the industry and the urbanization.
The attenuation of the eventual environmental effects and social negatives of enterprises of the electric
section are constituted, now, in a government concern, as it indicates the legal demand of the


  • An environmentally sensitive energy policy, critics maintain, requires more than simply reducing the immediate damage caused by oil drilling. It requires a fundamental shift away from the use of traditional fuels in favor of alternative, cleaner sources, they say. "Nationally, the electric industry is the most polluting industry in the country," argues Public Citizen, a consumer rights advocacy group. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • The share of global electricity from renewable energy is only 18% while 79% is fossil fuels, and 3% is nuclear (according to Global Status Report 2007). (Global Issues Database "Share of Global Electricity from Renewable Energy") [HCaz8]
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the accomplishment of this type activity.(http://www.brdisolutions.com/pdfs/bcota/abstracts/6/307.pdf) [OSus1]


  • When coal is burned harmful air pollutants like sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates are released to the air. These pollutants cause and aggravate respiratory diseases, damage lung tissue, and can lead to premature death. They can also harm vegetation, trees, crops and water quality. (http://www.meic.org/images/energy-images/energy-fact-sheets/coal_factsheet2006.htm) [NShu8]
  • Nevertheless, coal power plants are responsible for 93 percent of the sulfur dioxide and 80 percent of the nitrogen oxide emissions generated by the electric utility industry. (http://www.powerscorecard.org/tech_detail.cfm?resource_id=2) [NShu8]
  • Coal combustion also results in huge quantities of solid wastes. Enormous quantities of waste heat require large amounts of water for cooling. The collection of this water from major water bodies threatens local aquatic life, including the killing of fish on the screens designed to keep such organisms out of the power plant. (http://www.powerscorecard.org/tech_detail.cfm?resource_id=2) [NShu8]
  • The goal of electric vehicles is to reduce air emissions associated with typical internal combustion vehicles (ICVs), thereby decreasing the emission of environmentally damaging products such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. [ABro1] (http://cr.middlebury.edu/es/altenergylife/electric_car_page.htm)
  • using electric motors could reduce overall urban pollution and greenhouse emissions 20% less than a regular mechanical gas online-powered vehicle. Therefore, laying a foundation system for a transportation system that could ultimately be pollution free would be the most effective step in solving some of the already detrimental hazardous that come from the combustion of fossil fuels through car use. [ABro1] (http://cr.middlebury.edu/es/altenergylife/electric_car_page.htm)
  • Electric power plants that burn coal or oil give off smoke that pollutes the air. They also give off greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. Scientists say that too much greenhouse gas in the air is changing Earth's climate. Researchers are looking for ways to cut down on pollution from power plants. (Stille, Darlene R. Science Around Us:Electricity. United States: The Child's World, 2005.) [OSus1]
  • Associated with nuclear plants, in addition to the problem of waste heat, are difficulties attending the disposal and confinement of reaction products that remain dangerously radioactive for many thousands of years and the adjustment of such plants to variable demands for power.[AAlad8]http://www.answers.com/topic/electric-power
  • Others will say utilities should stay focused on conservation by using less power. But moving from oil to electricity in transportation will save energy overall and do it with dramatically lower emissions and pollution. (http://www.discovery.org/a/4479) [OSus1]
Modern technology uses large amounts of electrical power. This is normally generated at power plants which convert some other kind of energy into electrical power. Each such system has advantages and disadvantages, but many of them pose environmental concerns.The efficiency of some of these systems can be improved by cogeneration (combined heat and power) methods. Process steam can be extracted from steam turbines. Waste heat produced by thermal generating stations can be used for space heating of nearby buildings. By combining electric power production and heating, less fuel is consumed, thereby reducing the environmental effects compared with separate heat and power systems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_concerns_with_electricity_generation) [OSus1]
The environmental impact of any power generation station can be measured by quantifying the burden of fuel delivery, emissions of byproducts and wastes and the potential impact on the lives (human or otherwise) of those living nearby: [JPug1]


Is there be any opposition to the use of standard electrical power? Why? Do you agree or disagree with those views?:

  • Yes. Virtually everyone involved in the debate agrees that California's energy woes reveal major shortcomings in national energy policy. The nation's largest state, California in June 2000 began experiencing crippling energy shortages that resulted in rolling blackouts and emergency conservation provisions. Several of the state's electricity producers were pushed to the brink of bankruptcy. But the cause of those problems--and how to prevent their recurrence--is hotly debated. In 1996, California restructured its utilities industries, deregulating the wholesale production of energy but continuing to regulate its transmission. Over the next few years, however, the system began to disintegrate, resulting in skyrocketing prices, rolling blackouts and widespread concern of a prolonged energy shortage. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) I agree with these views. [HCaz8]
  • Yes. Standard Electricity depends on foreign countries which is a major threat to the U.S. security especially during wartime. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ). I agree with these views. [HCaz8]
  • One of the main points of debate over Bush's energy plan is the environmental consequences of opening the ANWR to oil exploration. The administration denies that oil drilling would harm the region, claiming that the technology exists to extract oil without significantly damaging the area's environmental integrity. Cheney has claimed, for example, that new oil-production methods allow "oil production to go literally unnoticed and the habitat to be undisturbed." (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ). I disagree with these views. [HCaz8]
  • Yes. Current electricity generation relies mainly on burning fossil fuels, with their associated CO2 [carbon dioxide] emissions, in very large power stations which waste much of their primary input energy. More energy is lost as the power is moved around the electricity grid network and converted from high transmission voltage down to a supply suitable for domestic or commercial consumers. The system is innately vulnerable to disruption: localised technical, weather-related or even deliberately caused faults can quickly cascade, resulting in widespread blackouts. Whichever technology is used to generate electricity within this old fashioned configuration, it will inevitably be subject to some, or all, of these problems. At the core of the energy [r]evolution therefore, there needs to be a change in the way that energy is both produced and distributed. http://find.galegroup.com/ovrc/retrieve.do? ( Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center Document Renewable Energy Can Reduce the Impact of Global Warming ) I agree with these views. [HCaz8]
  • Yes. The auto industry also maintains that electric cars will only marginally improve air quality since most power companies, which would supply the cars with electricity, themselves frequently produce power by burning fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. And since electric cars are powered by lead-acid batteries, mass-producing them will result in the release of large quantities of hazardous lead into the environment, they say. ( http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0104270&term=electricity) I agree that electricity used as an alternative energy source has environmental issues causing much opposition. [HCaz8]
  • Environmentalists are mostly opposed to standard electricity. Deregulation may encourage utilities to rely more heavily on coal, one of the cheapest--but most heavily polluting--fuel sources for generating electricity. An analysis by Merrill Lynch & Co. Inc., a New York City-based securities firm, estimates that coal consumption could rise to 1.2 billion tons per year, from the current 850 tons, after deregulation. Since coal and other fossil fuels release a variety of pollutants when they are burned, many environmentalists fear that deregulation could lead to increased air pollution over the long-term. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0300750&term=electricity#i0300750_6 ) [HCaz8]



Would there be any societal impacts to the use of standard electrical power?
  • For example, Rep. Billy Tauzin (R, La.) cites a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) that indicates that fuel efficiency standards implemented in the late 1970s may have contributed to a rise in auto-related fatalities by encouraging the production of smaller cars. Tauzin opposed an amendment, introduced by Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R, N.Y.), to the energy bill that would have made SUVs match the fuel economystandards of ordinary cars. "The NAS report says that if the Boehlert amendment passes, Americans will die in increasing numbers," asserts Tauzin, chairman of the House Energy Committee. (http://www.2facts.com/icof_story.aspx?PIN=i0602190&term=standard+electric+power ) [HCaz8]
  • If we have learned anything in the past two years, it must be that the open and unregulated competitive market in electricity proved disastrous for the entire West Coast. And FERC's failure to take prompt corrective action compounded the problem and cost consumers billions of dollars. (Global Issues Database "ELECTRIC RATEPAYERS FACE SUBTLE THREAT") [HCaz8]
  • In addition, electricity is now the cheapest form of fuel in the U.S., and many environmentalists maintain that refueling an electric car would cost the same or less compared with gasoline, once the technology to deliver electricity to consumers is in place. ( http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=societal+impacts+to+the+use+of+electricity&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8) This affects the society because money is a huge issue in the conflict of alternative energy sources. [HCaz8]
  • A growing body of scientific evidence suggests that invisible electromagnetic fields (EMFs) -- created by everything from high-voltage utility company lines to personal computers, microwave ovens, TVs and even electric blankets -- are linked to a frightening array of cancers and other serious health problems in children and adults. (http://www.midtod.com/9603/voltage.phtml ) [HCaz8]
  • Despite extensive research over the past 20 years, the health risk caused by EMF expo- sure remains an open question. Two national research organizations (the National Research Council and the National Institute of Health) have looked at the studies and have concluded that there is not strong evidence that EMF exposures pose a health risk. However, some studies have shown an association between household EMF exposure and a small increased risk of childhood leukemia at average exposures above 3 mG. For cancers other than childhood leukemia, there is less evidence for an effect. For example, workers that repair power lines and railway workers can be exposed to much higher EMF levels than the general public. The results of cancer studies in these workers is mixed. Some studies have suggested a link between EMF exposure in electrical workers and leukemia and brain cancer. Other similar studies have not found such associations. There is also some evidence that utility workers exposed to high levels of EMF may be at increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s Disease). Although the current scientific evidence provides no definitive answers as to whether EMF exposure can increase health risks, there is enough uncertainty that some people may want to reduce their exposure to EMF. (http://www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/environmental_health/eoha/pdf/emf_fact_sheet_-_2008.pdf) [HCaz8]



Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) would need to clear the way for new electricity transmission lines by extending the agency's existing power of “eminent domain” — which currently allows it to seize private land only for natural gas pipelines - but, if allowed power, would allow them to sieze private land for electricity lines. [CPar8] (http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2001052500&type=hitlist&num=4)


Morgan McDonnell's Electrical stuff (in no particular order):

History of standard electrical power:

Michael Faradayof England and American Joseph Henryseparately built the first laboratory models of electric generator in 1832. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm[MMcD1]
Frenchmen, Hippolyte Pixii, France built a hand-driven model of an electric generator in 1833. American,Nikola Teslabuilt the first alternating-current generator in 1892.http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm[MMcD1]


1800 - First electric batteryinvented by Alessandro Volta. Voltaproved that electricity could travel over wires. 1816 - First energy utility in US founded.http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/electricity_timeline.htm[MMcD1]

1886 William Stanleydevelops transformer and Alternating Current electric system. Frank Spraguebuilds first American transformer and demonstrates use of step up and step down transformers for long distance AC power transmission in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. The WestinghouseElectric Company is organized. 40 to 50 water powered electric plants reported on line or under construction in the U.S. and Canada.http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/electricity_timeline.htm[MMcD1]

Reliability of standard electrical power:

Gasoline-hybrid engines are showing much less wear and tear than a gasoline-only engine after high mileage. This is because the engines are helped out all day by the electric power system, which will last practically forever on its own. http://www.hybrid-electric-car.net/Hybrid_Car_Facts_2.html[MMcD1]
The standard warranty on hybrid batteries usually runs between 80,000 and 100,000 miles. Taxi services everywhere are switching over to hybrid cars and most are going 200,000 to 300,000 miles with absolutely no change in battery performance.http://www.hybrid-electric-car.net/Hybrid_Car_Facts_2.html[MMcD1]

How is standard electrical power used?:

Power transformersare used for many applications including to step down the high transmission voltage in power lines to a level that can be used by industrial business and household usage. Transformers are designated by low, medium and high side operating voltage, and sized by the capacity of the volts and amperes being carried. http://www.accessscience.com/browseToc.aspx?main=8⊂=24[MMcD1]

The power transformer has been the backbone for the electrical distribution system for many years. Power transformers are extremely reliable and are known for their high efficiency.http://www.accessscience.com/browseToc.aspx?main=8⊂=24[MMcD1]
An electric utility power station uses either a turbine, engine, water wheel, or other similar machine to drive an electric generator or a device that converts mechanical or chemical energy to electricity. Steam turbines, internal-combustion engines, gas combustion turbines, water turbines, and wind turbines are the most common methods to generate electricity. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm[MMcD1]
Smart’ fridges that run on renewable electricity and are capable of negotiating the most energy efficient way to keep food cold have been developed by researchers from CSIRO’s Energy Transformed Flagship. “These fluctuations are bad for the electricity grid,” Mr. West says. “Rapid variations in electricity flow can destabilize the grid and result in blackouts and other unwanted side-effects, but your fridge can help smooth out these fluctuations if it turns on and off at the right time. “The fridges work together in a network to decide when to cool down, and thus consume power, based on how much surplus power will be available. They are able to anticipate power shortages and change their running schedules accordingly to use as little power as possible during these times. In short, the fridges are working cooperatively to use the available power supply efficiently.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080415162612.htm[MMcD1]

Benefits of using standard electrical power:


The cars can travel only about a 100 miles on an average, and on a single charge.http://www.articlesbase.com/cars-articles/top-7-disadvantages-of-electric-cars-577453.html[MMcD1]
Since electric vehicles run on electricity generated from batteries and do not emit air pollutants, these vehicles are termed zero emission vehicles (ZEV).http://cr.middlebury.edu/es/altenergylife/electric_car_page.htm[MMcD1]
Since there is no IC engine, the vehicle runs noiselessly, you usually won’t even know that a electric vehicle has just passed beside you. http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/1838.aspx[MMcD1]
Manufacturing the EV is very easy; you have to merely assemble various components of the vehicle. This is especially true for small motorcycles or mopeds. http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/1838.aspx[MMcD1]

Disadvantages of using standard electrical power:

In general, electric cars are still behind vehicles in their ability to accelerate and climb quickly.http://www.articlesbase.com/cars-articles/top-7-disadvantages-of-electric-cars-577453.html[MMcD1]
If you are traveling a long distance, you may be at the risk of the battery getting discharged. As such there are no battery charging stations available on roads and highways. In some states like California and Arizona, shopping malls and some stores offer charging facilities, but they are not available everywhere. In future the trend of providing charging points is surely going to spread across other businesses and states. http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/1838.aspx[MMcD1]

Economic costs of using standard electrical power:
Operation and maintenance costs on hybrids are much cheaper than a traditional gasoline engine. Since hybrid engines show much less wear and tear the resale values are much higher than gasoline-only cars. Actually, the popular Toyota Prius is reselling at close to its original price, something unheard of for most gas cars. http://www.hybrid-electric-car.net/Hybrid_Car_Facts_2.html[MMcD1]

Is there be any opposition to the use of standard electrical power? Why? Do you agree or disagree with those views?:

Though the vehicle running on electricity does not produce pollution, the power plants producing electricity do produce pollution. The pollutants created by thermal power plants are one of major source of air-pollution. I agree that electric cars seem pollution free but they indirectly cause just as much pollution as normal gas cars.
http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/1838.aspx[MMcD1]

Would there be any societal impacts to the use of standard electrical power?:

Federal and state dollars help provide incentives for fleets and private individuals to purchase Alternate Fuel Vehicles. http://www.envirothonpa.org/documents/22a.2ElectricityBenefits.pdf[MMcD1]

The electric solar wind sail developed by Dr. Pekka Janhunen might revolutionise travelling in space. The electric sail uses the solar wind as its thrust source and therefore needs no fuel or propellant. The solar wind is a continuous plasma stream emanating from the Sun.http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080415162612.htm[MMcD1]

The electric sail could enable faster and cheaper solar system exploration. It might also enable economic utilization of asteroid resources for, e.g. producing rocket fuel in orbit. “The electric sail might lower the cost of all space activities and thereby, for example, help making large solar power satellites a viable option for clean electricity production.” says Dr. Pekka Janhunen.http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080415162612.htm[MMcD1]